Cordyceps sinensis is a combination of fungi belonging to the genus Cyclobacteria, Hypocrea, Ergotaceae, and Cordyceps parasitic on the larvae of the Lepidoptera Hepidia. The whole shape is formed by the connection of the worm body and the fruit body. The appearance is yellow-brown or yellow-brown. The worm body is very similar to the silkworm. The body is slender and cylindrical, 3 to 5 cm long, 0.3 to 1 cm thick, and 20 to 30.
The obvious link is that there are 8 pairs in the abdomen, especially 4 pairs in the middle. Fruit bodies are those that extend outside the host insect. A reproductive organ that can be recognized by the naked eye formed by the mycelium repeatedly kinked and differentiated. The texture is brittle, the cross section is yellow and white, the head is reddish brown, with pedestals, and the pedestals are mostly solitary, slender like a stick, 4-10 cm long, swollen top, brown surface, slightly tough texture, yellow-white cross section And it is fibrous, the head of the sub seat is scattered or densely covered with ascus shells. Numerous ascos are formed in the ascus shells, and the ascospores that can reproduce sexually are in the ascus.
The distribution of Cordyceps is closely related to topography, landform, and altitude. The host moth likes to grow on moist, low temperature, sunny, well-drained terrain and landforms.
1. Cultivation conditions. The artificial cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis is mainly to prepare the two conditions of bacteria and insects.
① Strains: The cultivation of Cordyceps must first have fine pure strains. First, it must mature early and produce high yield. The main purpose is to shorten the production cycle and reduce costs. The second is to have a strong infectivity, requiring the strains to have strong vitality, with a survival rate of 95% or more, which can quickly infect insects and die as soon as possible. The third is to adapt to a wide range, especially to a certain degree of resistance to environmental temperature changes and other bacterial infections.
②Insects: Insects mainly use bat larvae as parasites of Cordyceps sinensis. The larvae must be alive, large and obese, and the number depends on their own cultivation. Generally, 1 kilogram of larvae per square meter, one female seed, 50 kilograms of fine sand, can plant 0.5 kilograms of fresh Cordyceps, and 0.05 dry grams of sun-dried products, worth 100 yuan.
③Environment: The artificial cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis can be cultivated regardless of altitude, and the key is determined by temperature. Cordyceps sinensis is a medium- and low-temperature type fungus. The suitable temperature for mycelial growth and reproduction is 5～32℃, and the most suitable temperature is 12～18℃, and the formation of sclerotia and pedestal is 10～25℃.
④Cultivation season: Using natural temperature, it can be cultivated for two seasons a year, from March to May in spring and from September to November in autumn. If the temperature is controlled indoors, it can be cultivated throughout the year, and the growth period can be shortened.
2. Cultivation method. Cordyceps can be cultivated in many ways, such as indoor and outdoor bottle planting, box planting, bed planting, open field cultivation, etc., according to your own conditions. No matter what kind of cultivation method, it is necessary to cultivate fungi and insects before cultivation, so that the insects will be infected with this virus-bearing bacterial liquid before they are in the soil. When they enter the soil, they are seriously ill and should not crawl around. , The growth is uniform. The method of culturing the fungus is to spray the prepared liquid fungus on the larva with a sprayer. Spray twice a day until it becomes wet. After 3 days, the larva soaked by the fungus appears to be slow and in a coma state. For cultivation.
①Bottle planting: suitable for home cultivation. After washing with ordinary canned bottles, put a layer of 2.5 to 3 cm of fine sand in the bottle with a soil moisture content of 60%, and then place the infected larvae on it , Two larvae should be placed in each bottle. The two larvae should not be close together. The abdomen should be down and stretched out. Cover the top with fine sand 3 cm and flatten the surface slightly. In order to keep it moist, seal it with a plastic film and put it in a suitable temperature indoor and outdoor for management, avoid direct sunlight.
② Box planting: It is also suitable for home cultivation, and can be cultivated in wooden boxes and plastic pots. There should be plastic film at the bottom and around the wooden box to prevent water loss. First, spread the fine sand 5-7 cm thick, and then evenly put the fungus and insects. The space between each insect is 2 to 3 cm, and then cover the sand 3 ~5 cm, the surface is moisturized with plastic film. In order to save space, the wooden boxes can also be overlapped.
③Bed planting: Bed frame cultivation is a development method for mass production. This method is generally suitable for indoors. It can make full use of indoor space for layer frame cultivation and save space. The bed frame is 100 cm wide, and the length is designed according to your own room. It is made of bamboo and wood. Each floor is 12 cm high on four sides for retaining the soil. When planting, first spread a layer of plastic film, and then pour 5-7 cm of fine sand and flatten it. Put the fungi and insects in the box, plant it in a box, cover with sand 3 to 5 cm, and then cover with plastic film.
④Open-field planting: refers to outdoor cultivation. The key to outdoor cultivation is to choose a good site. First, avoid direct sunlight and rain washing, and achieve an environment that can shade, drain, prevent drought, and prevent humans and animals from trampling. Cultivation methods can be flat or border two methods. Flat-land cultivation is to remove 15 cm of topsoil, 100 cm wide and unlimited in length from the general flat land, covered land, and wasteland, then fill with 5 cm thick sand, add fungi and insects according to the above method, and cover 5-7 cm of fine sand , Cover with plastic film outside, with drainage ditches around, and trees or awnings for shade.
⑤ Border cultivation: Border cultivation can avoid the problems of sunlight and high temperature, and is suitable for cultivation in the vast countryside. The border is 100 cm wide and 50 cm deep, and can be drained all around. During cultivation, pave 5 cm of fine sand at the bottom of the border, and then add fungi and insects according to the above method, and then cover with 5 cm of fine sand. Finally Cover with plastic film. Use bamboo arches next to the borders, and cover with grass curtains for shade and cooling.
3. Management technology. The management technology of Cordyceps sinensis after cultivation is very simple, mainly the management of temperature, humidity, light and air.
①Temperature: Cordyceps has a relatively wide range of temperature requirements, generally low first and then high, but it is better to grow slowly if it is too low, and not too high. The hyphae grow at 12-18°C. The temperature is low and the growth is slow, but there are few bacteria and the survival rate is high. Generally, it will not die at -40°C, but it will die if it is higher than 40°C. In the later stage of growth stage, the temperature of 20-25°C is beneficial to growth.
②Humidity: Humidity management is the key to the growth and development of Cordyceps sinensis. The nutrition and humidity in the insect body can basically meet its growth requirements. It does not require external nutrition and humidity. It only needs external objects to keep the temperature of the insect body and not easy to dry, so Keep the sandy soil moist at any time, and the water content should reach 60%. If it is dry, spray a small amount of water to keep it moist.
③Light: The cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis does not require strong light, and it is better to avoid light. It is better to use astigmatism during the later stage of the development of the pedestal, but do not allow direct sunlight, especially outdoor cultivation should use tree shade, artificial shade sheds, and grass Shade by means of curtain covering.
④Air: Cordyceps sinensis mycelium does not need a lot of air during the growth stage, especially when the pedestal is about to leave the ground, the plastic film should be removed immediately to increase the air to facilitate the growth of the pedestal, and the relative humidity of the air should be about 75%-95%. It matures 10-20 days after unearthed.
Harvesting and processing
Under natural conditions, the growth period of Cordyceps sinensis is generally 9 months. The growth rate mainly determines the nature of the variety. The maturity standard is that the pedestal is unearthed and stretched 3 to 5 cm high, and the top is developed into an ascofruit "brush tip".
①Harvesting method: Use bamboo and wooden poles to gently plan the sars, pick out the Cordyceps and put it in the basket. Be careful not to break the worm body and the pedestal, not to mention the worm body or the pedestal. After finishing, rinse the sediment with water, and put it in the sun to dry or dry in time.
②Processing method: Encapsulated Cordyceps is processed by using loose Cordyceps as raw material. That is, after the loose cordyceps has regained moisture, arrange it straight, tie every 7-10 pieces with thread into small handles and bake them on a low heat until they are completely dry. Put 48 small handles of tail tails into the iron grid and install three layers. There are more than 16 layers, after being squeezed and sealed, they are sulphurized and dried, and the trademark is tied firmly with red silk rope. The specification requires that each pack of Cordyceps should be kept at about 0.25 grams, packed in a wooden box, with a layer of moisture-proof paper in the inner village, tied with an iron band on the outside, and stored in a ventilated and dry place.